Differences in opinion between the USA and Europe over how to address the situation in Iran may also manifest themselves during the emergency meeting on Friday.
US Ambassador to the UN Nikki Haley warned Iran on Friday that no government can legitimately deny human rights, adding that the regime is "now on notice".
She added: "Freedom and human dignity can not be separated from peace and security".
"The world has witnessed the horrors that have taken place in Syria, that began with a murderous regime denying its people's right to peacefully protest", Haley said in a statement Thursday night.
Russia, a council member, has close ties with Iran, which isn't.
Against that backdrop, the Security Council meeting is more a stage for diplomats to voice their concern over the treatment of protesters, but little more.
"We must not let that happen in Iran". Russian Federation has been vocal in its opposition to the session, with Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov accusing the USA of infringing on Iran's sovereignty. Majority emphasized the need to fully implement the JCPOA and to refrain from interfering in internal affairs of others. "They do so shamelessly", Ryabkov was quoted as saying by Interfax news agency.
Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif listens to anchor Charlie Rose, at an event held in conjunction with the 72nd United Nations General Assembly in Manhattan, New York, U.S., September 27, 2017.
Ryabkov accused Washington of "directly attacking the sovereignty of other states under the pretext of being concerned about democracy and human rights".
They were followed by large pro-government rallies in Tehran and a the cities of Kerman and Tabriz, all of which were widely covered by Iranian state television.
Khoshroo also said the United States had abused its power as a permanent member of the Security Council by calling for a meeting to discuss the protests.
British Ambassador to the United Nations Matthew Rycroft, left, speaks to American Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley before the start of a Security Council meeting on the situation in Iran, Friday, Jan. 5, 2018 at United Nations headquarters.
Equatorial Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kuwait, Peru, Poland and the Netherlands began their stint at the Security Council on January 1.
It is unlikely that a product will come from the meeting even if it goes ahead, with a non-binding press statement the most likely result.
A representative from Iran was also present at Friday's meeting.More news: North Korea accidentally hit one of its own cities with missile