Panama became the second nation to quality for the World Cup in the past week for the first time in their history.
It's the first time the United States of America have failed to qualify for the tournament since 1986.
Didier Deschamps' side avoided any final day slip-ups as they saw off Belarus 2-1, courtesy of first-half goals from Antoine Griezmann and Olivier Giroud.
Cristiano Ronaldo's European champions Portugal face a game at home against Switzerland on Tuesday that will see one of the two teams seal the sole automatic qualifying spot.
Belgium, England, Germany, Iceland, Poland, Serbia and Spain have already secured their places with two group winners still to be decided.
Only Brazil has so far qualified, with Uruguay, Chile, Colombia and Peru all ahead of Argentina.More news: CeCe Kizer leads Ole Miss to 4-1 victory over LSU
In Europe, the eight best runners-up from the qualifying stages, including Ireland, will go into next Monday's play-off draw. Matches will be held between June 14 - July 15 at 12 stadiums located in the 11 mentioned above cities across Russian Federation.
In Africa, there are still three places up for grabs as the third and final round of qualifying enters the last two group games.
The finale of this round of qualification also saw the play-off places finalised, which will decide the remaining four spots from the continent, joining Russian Federation and the nine group winners in representing the region.
The remaining three qualifiers will not be determined until next month.
New Zealand face a play-off next month against the team finishing fifth in South American qualifying, with the victor of that two-legged tie qualifying for the finals.
Slovakia were the only group runner-up in Europe not to get a playoff place after being ranked ninth of nine from all the second place finishers.